Why is VariDerm™ So Effective?

Doctor Formulation

VariDerm™ is a double response proprietary solution, attacking the problem from multiple angles. When a capsule is taken, the powerful ingredients travel throughout your bloodstream working on the problem internally. VariDerm™ supports healthy vein tissue formation and function while helping to increase the blood flow inside your veins. While taking 6 capsules a day, VariDerm™ is fast and effective, using only the safest all natural ingredients with no known side effects. For optimal venous health, use with VariCream™ which provides nourishing support for the skin soothing inflammation and smoothing protruding varicose or unsightly spider veins.

Each ingredient was carefully selected and properly combined to create the most powerful non prescription solution on the market. VeriDerm's™ powerful ingredients restore the health of your veins from the inside out. By helping to restore your body's healthy blood flow, VariDerm™ effectively nourishes the venous tissues and renews the strength of your varicose veins. VariCream™ nourishes skin health and fades the appearance of ugly veins utilizing key natural ingredients to penetrate the layers of the skin to provide healing and soothing benefits for reducing inflammation and balancing skin tone.

VariDerm™ contains only clinically tested ingredients that meet the grade strength and purity of the USP/NF (United States Pharmacopeia–National Formulary) quality standards. VariDerm™ is manufactured in the United States in an FDA registered laboratory that exceeds industry standards. Our manufacturing facility is GMP certified and abides by the highest FDA guidelines.

Recommended Use: - For adults, VariDerm™ is to take 2 (two) capsules), 3 (three) times daily with each meal. Take 2 (two) capsules in the morning, 2 (two in the afternoon) and 2 (two) before bedtime. VariCream™, for best results, needs to be applied 3-4 times daily.

VariDerm™ 's - Proprietary Blend of Ingredients:

Click here to see VariDerm™ label.

Witch Hazel (Leaf & Bark) (Hamamelis) produces astringent tannins that can be used to treat the inflammation and swelling associated with varicose veins, by working to shrink blood vessels. Witch hazel not only works to tighten stretched veins and repair vessel strength, but also alleviates pain associated with varicose veins. Several studies have demonstrated its powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that influence the positive effects of this herb.

*References:
  1. MacKay D. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Apr;6(2):126-40.
  2. Steven Foster, Witch hazel, Hamamelis virginiana, Article and Photos, Steven Foster Group], retrieved April 14, 2012.
  3. Witch Hazel Overview Information, WebMD, accessed April 14, 2012.
  4. Michael C. Bingham. Which Witch Is Witch Hazel (and Which Dickinson Makes It)?, Connecticut Business Journal, 20 October 1997.

Horse Chestnut Seed (Aesculus hippocastanum) produces Aescin which is effective in treating vein problems, specifically when the veins do not efficiently return blood from the legs to the heart. Aescin appears to reduce swelling, inflammation and improves blood circulation, especially when used in conjunction with other ingredients, which contain tannins and flavonoids found in foods such as bilberries, and citrus rinds.

*References:
  1. Aesculus hippocastanum (Horse chestnut). Monograph. Altern Med Rev. 2009 Sep;14(3):278-83. Review. Arcangeli P. Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency. Fitoterapia. 2000;71:236-44.
  2. MacKay D. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Apr;6(2):126-40.

Diosmin is a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, which has been used for many years to treat conditions associated with vein health. Its anti-inflammatory properties shrink problematic veins and restore normal vein function. Diosmin promotes healthy blood flow and circulation maintaining tone and elasticity of veins which is key to sustained vascular health.

*References:
  1. MacKay D. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Apr;6(2):126-40.
  2. New Dietary Ingredients in Dietary Supplements, U. S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements February 2001 (Updated September 10, 2001).

Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale) is a popular herb well known for its powerful anti-inflammatory qualities. Its warming effects promote good circulation flushing out toxins in the process. Additional benefits have been shown to reduce the likelihood of clotting by reducing platelet stickiness which ultimately, will keep the cardiovascular system much healthier.

*References:
  1. O'Hara, Mary; Kiefer, David; Farrell, Kim; Kemper, Kathi (1998). "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". Archives of Family Medicine 7 (6): 523–536.
  2. University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006)."Ginger". Retrieved 2 August 2007.

Hesperidin is a flavonoid commonly found in citrus fruits and can be used in conjunction with Diosmin to treat venous (vein) insufficiency. It contains anti-inflammatory properties and has been shown to reduce the permeability of capillaries. Flavonoids are believed to provide support for capillary fragility, which may be caused by injury or disease. Hesperidin protects blood vessels against the harmful effects of free radicals and strengthens veins.

*References:
  1. MacKay D. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Apr;6(2):126-40.
  2. Benavente-García, O.; Castillo, J. (2008). "Update on Uses and Properties of Citrus Flavonoids: New Findings in Anticancer, Cardiovascular, and Anti-inflammatory Activity". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (15): 6185–205.

Oats (Avena sativa) commonly known as oats, contains a range of medicinal elements. Alongside its cholesterol reducing benefits, its diuretic qualities reduce fluid retention and the alkaloids it contains are known to cause a relaxing action in the venous system which in turn promotes blood flow and circulation.

*References:
  1. Nutrition for everyone: carbohydrates". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services. 2014
  2. "Oats". World's Healthiest Foods, The George Mateljan Foundation. 2014.
  3. Navarra, Tova. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals and Supplements. Second Edition.

Butcher's Broom (Ruscus aculeatus) contains anti-inflammatory properties and has been found by researchers to stimulate vasoconstriction, beneficial for treating circulatory conditions. It contains two main active 'saponin' elements - neoruscogenin and ruscogenin. These elements are known to benefit venous conditions by acting as agents to tighten blood vessels and capillaries. European hospitals commonly use Butcher's Broom to prevent the development of clots after surgical procedures. Butcher's Broom promotes vein strength and allows for improved blood flow.

*References:
  1. Vanscheidt W, Jost V, Wolna P, et al. Efficacy and safety of a Butcher's broom preparation (Ruscus aculeatus L. extract) compared to placebo in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency. Arzneimittelforschung. 2002;52:243-250.
  2. MacKay D. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Apr;6(2):126-40.

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) is a small fruit, similar to the Blueberry. It is recognised for its strong antioxidant properties and ability to strengthen blood vessels, which in turn encourages better circulation and blood flow.

*References:
  1. Persson I.A., Persson K., Andersson R.G. Effect of Vaccinium myrtillus and its polyphenols on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in human endothelial cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jun 10;57(11):4626-9.
  2. Burdulis D, Ivanauskas L, Dirse V, Kazlauskas S, Razukas A (2007). "Study of diversity of anthocyanin composition in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruits" (PDF). Medicina (Kaunas) 43 (12): 971–7.

Plantain (Plantago lanceolata) Modern studies confirm the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties of plantain, with some studies suggesting that plantain extract decreases arterial blood pressure. It contains Aucubin, which has been reported to be a powerful anti-toxin. Due to its antibacterial quality, it is considered a safe and effective treatment for bleeding, since it quickly stops blood flow and encourages the repair of damaged tissue.

*References:
  1. Genetic variation in defensive chemistry in Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) and its effect on the specialist herbivore Junonia coenia (Nymphalidae). Lynn S. Adler, Johanna Schmitt and M. Deane Bowers, Oecologia, January 1995, Volume 101, Issue 1, pages 75-85.
  2. Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J et al. (October 2013). "Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine--an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 149 (3): 750–71.

Rutin is a citrus flavonoid suggested to decrease capillary permeability, which thins the blood and enhances blood flow. It also contains anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.


*References:
  1. MacKay D. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Apr;6(2):126-40.
  2. Reporter, Daily Mail (9 May 2012). "Chemical found in apples, onions and green tea can help beat blood clots". London: Mail Online.

Red Root (Lachnanthes) is a tall green shrub that grows in North America and has a long history of medicinal uses. It contains tannins which work to shrink tissues and reduce abnormal bleeding. Its astringent properties reduce bleeding from broken skin capillaries reducing spider veins. Furthermore, it is shown to smooth varicose veins by stimulating inter-tissue fluid circulation and increasing blood flow.

*References:
  1. Dandy, James Edgar. Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 70: 329. 1932.
  2. Robertson, Kenneth R. (2003), "Lachnanthes caroliniana", in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+, Flora of North America online 26, New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 47–48, retrieved 2008-11-17.

Cayenne (Capsicum annuum) contains the active ingredient capsaicin, which is a well known warming agent known to relieve pain. It is also an excellent blood circulation stimulant ensuring optimal blood flow and nutrient delivery essential for good vascular health. Proper circulation is critical for bringing healing nutrients to damaged cells and for flushing waste from the cells. It also has anti-inflammatory characteristics that reduces swelling and antioxidant properties that prevents damage from free radicals.

*References:
  1. Westerterp-Plantenga, MS; Reinbach, HC; Smeets, A; Martinussen, T; Møller, P (June 2009). "Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance.". Clinical Nutrition 28 (3).
  2. Nutrition Facts: Spices, pepper, red or cayenne". Nutrition Data. Condé Nast Digital. 2011
  3. Joseph E. Pizzorno Jr. and Michael T. Murray (2012). Textbook of natural medicine (4th ed. ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 634.

Mullein Leaf (Verbascum thapsus) comes from a wildflower and has been shown to contain antibacterial, diuretic, antispasmodic, expectorant, astringent, sedative, mucilaginous, and vulnerary properties.

*References:
  1. Viljoen A, Mncwangi N, Vermaak I. Anti-Inflammatory Iridoids of Botanical Origin. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2012;19(14):2104-2127.


VariCream™ 's - Proprietary Blend of Ingredients:

Click here to see VariCream™ label.

Petrolatum is a mineral oil jelly often used as a protective barrier to lock in moisture in the skin. It can be applied as a topical ointment due to its healing properties. The FDA has approved it as an over-the-counter skin protectant.

*References:
  1. Jeong, Jeung-Tae; Kye, Young-Chul (2001). "Resurfacing of Pitted Facial Acne Scars with a Long-Pulsed Er:YAG Laser". Dermatologic Surgery 27 (2): 107–10.
  2. MacEachern, William; Jillson, Otis (1964). "A Practical Sunscreen – 'Red Vet Pet'". Archives of Dermatology 89 (1): 147–50.

Anhydrous Lanolin is a natural wax secreted by the glands of wool-bearing animals, such as sheep. Touted for its hydrating properties, it is ideal for protecting, lubricating and moisturizing damaged skin and as a topical treatment for irritated skin and minor wounds. It is easily absorbed into the skin.

*References:
  1. Conrad, L. I., Maso, H.F., Functional properties of lanolin derivatives in formulations. Am. Perfum. 77, 97, 1962.
  2. Clark, E.W., Liquid lanolin - development, production, properties and uses. Am. Perfum. 77, 89, 1962.

Butcher's Broom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract This Mediterranean herb has been used medicinally for centuries. Studies have shown that it is an effective treatment for circulatory issues and their symptoms including varicose veins. Butcher's broom can shrink dilated blood vessels and also relieve the dermatitis, an itchy rash that usually accompanies varicose veins.

*References:
  1. Butcher's Broom. (2011). http://www.wholehealthmd.com/
  2. MacKay D. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options. Altern Med Rev. (2001).

Glycerin also known as glycerol, is a simple sugar alcohol compound derived from plants or animals that is highly hydrophilic which absorbs moisture from the air and produces the sensation of wetness on the skin. Widely used to lubricate, soothe and moisturize irritated skin or to speed up wound healing. It can help relieve some of the discomforts of varicose veins.

*References:
  1. Butcher's Broom. (2011). http://www.wholehealthmd.com/
  2. Mari FS, Nigri G, Dall'Oglio A, Cosenza UM, Milillo A, Terrenato I, Pancaldi A, Brescia A. Topical glyceryl trinitrate ointment for pain related to anal hypertonia after stapled hemorrhoidopexy: a randomized controlled trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 2013 Jun;56(6):768-73.
  3. Short R, Chan J, Choi J, Egbert B, Rehmus W, Kimball A. Effects of moisturization on epidermal homeostasis and differentiation. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2007;32(1):88-90.

Oat (Avena sativa) Extract Also known as oat straw, it contains antioxidants and are an important component for relieving varicose veins when applied directly on the affected areas, it can act as an emollient, soothing irritation and reducing inflammation.

*References:
  1. Health Benefits of Oat Straw. (2013). http://www.mdidea.com/products/new/new03207.html
  2. Emmons CL1, Peterson DM, Paul GL. Antioxidant capacity of oat (Avena sativa L.) extracts. 2. In vitro antioxidant activity and contents of phenolic and tocol antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Dec;47(12):4894-8.

Lidocaine HCL was the first amino amide-type anesthetic synthesized. Known in part for its anti-inflammatory properties, it can be used to treat minor discomfort, throbbing and itching caused by varicose veins by numbing the surrounding tissue.

*References:
  1. Cepeda MS, Tzortzopoulou A, Thackrey M, Hudcova J, Arora Gandhi P, Schumann R (2010). "Adjusting the pH of lidocaine for reducing pain on injection". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (12): CD006581.
  2. Derry, S; Wiffen, PJ; Moore, RA; Quinlan, J (24 July 2014). "Topical lidocaine for neuropathic pain in adults.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 7: CD010958.

Organic Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Extract oil is used as an anti-inflammatory agent and as a remedy for healing wounds. When applied to varicose veins, marigold can control swelling, throbbing and soothe them.

*References:
  1. Duran, V; Matic, M; Jovanovć, M; Mimica, N; Gajinov, Z; Poljacki, M; Boza, P (2005). "Results of the clinical examination of an ointment with marigold (Calendula officinalis) extract in the treatment of venous leg ulcers". Int J Tissue React. 27 (3): 101–6.
  2. Pommier, P., et al. (2004). Phase III randomized trial of Calendula officinalis compared with trolamine for the prevention of acute dermatitis during irradiation for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 22(8) 1447-53.

Cetyl Alcohol is a fatty alcohol derived from whale oil. Used primarily as a lubricant and moisturizer in the treatment of eczema and other skin irritations and to relieve the itchiness usually accompanying varicose veins.

*References:
  1. Gaul, LE (1969). "Dermatitis from cetyl and stearyl alcohols". Archives of dermatology 99 (5): 593.
  2. Soga, F; Katoh, N; Kishimoto, S (2004). "Contact dermatitis due to lanoconazole, cetyl alcohol and diethyl sebacate in lanoconazole cream". Contact dermatitis 50 (1): 49–50.(2001).

Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) is a medicinal plant that has been used in healing for centuries. In addition to strengthening veins and reducing bleeding, it has astringent and anti-inflammatory properties. It is also effective as an anti-itching agent.

*References:
  1. Erdelmeier, C. A. J. et al. Antiviral and Antiphlogistic Activities of Hamamelis virginiana Bark. Planta Medica, 62(1996) (3):241–245.
  2. Steven Foster, Witch hazel, Hamamelis virginiana, Article and Photos, Steven Foster Group.(2001).

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract is a fruit closely related to blueberries. It is a rich source of antioxidants and promotes vein and artery health, which is critical for healing varicose veins. They contain anti-inflammatory and astringent compounds, which help strengthen the blood vessels and relieve some of the associated symptoms of varicose veins.

*References:
  1. Burdulis D, Ivanauskas L, Dirse V, Kazlauskas S, Razukas A (2007). "Study of diversity of anthocyanin composition in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruits". Medicina (Kaunas) 43 (12): 971–7.
  2. Facts on Bilberry. (2012). http://www.livestrong.com/article/13-facts-bilberry/ (2001).

Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) Gel Commonly known as Aloe Vera, this is one of the most commonly used medicinal herbs. The juice from its leaves have many antibacterial properties and anti-fungal qualities, as well as a soothing and anti-inflammatory effects on irritated skin. The healing and rejuvenative properties of Aloe Vera have been well researched.

*References:
  1. Banu, A., Sathyanarayana, B., & Chattannavar, G. (2012). Efficacy of fresh Aloe vera gel against multi-drug resistant bacteria in infected leg ulcers. The Australasian Medical Journal, 5(6), 305–309.
  2. Boudreau MD, Beland FA (2006). "An Evaluation of the Biological and Toxicological Properties of Aloe Barbadensis (Miller), Aloe Vera". J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 24 (1): 103–54.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Root Extract is an ancient root that is prized around the world for both culinary and medicinal applications. It is known to provide an anti-inflammatory effect to relieve pain caused by varicose veins, and also to improve blood circulation, which helps cleanse the blood and promote proper nutrient delivery to all areas of the body.

*References:
  1. O'Hara, Mary; Kiefer, David; Farrell, Kim; Kemper, Kathi (1998). "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". Archives of Family Medicine 7 (6): 523–536.
  2. Wood, George Bacon (1867). "XV. Ginger. Zingiber. U.S., Br". A Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica Volume 1. J. B. Lippincott & Co.

Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Essential Oil is derived from a plant that grows primarily in Europe and North America. Peppermint oil has a host of uses for a variety of health conditions. Known for its cooling effects upon the skin, it can be taken both orally and topically. Especially beneficial in bringing relief to bulging and throbbing varicose veins when applied directly on them.

*References:
  1. Khanna R, MacDonald JK, Levesque BG (July 2014). "Peppermint oil for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 48 (6): 505–12.
  2. R. Eccles (1994). "Menthol and Related Cooling Compounds". J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46 (8): 618–630.

Rutin is a compound found in many fruits and vegetables which is important for healthy circulation and blood vessel strength. Rutin is widely used to treat varicose veins due to the strengthening effect that it exerts on the capillaries.

*References:
    1. Krewson, C. F.; Naghski, J. (2006). "Some physical properties of rutin". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 41 (11): 582–7.
    2. Navarro-Núñez, L.; Lozano, M. L.; Palomo, M.; Martínez, C.; Vicente, V.; Castillo, J.; Benavente-García, O.; Diaz-Ricart, M.; Escolar, G.; Rivera, J. (2008). "Apigenin Inhibits Platelet Adhesion and Thrombus Formation and Synergizes with Aspirin in the Suppression of the Arachidonic Acid Pathway". J. Agric. Food Chem. 56 (9): 2970-6.

Clove (Eugenia caryophyllus) Bud Oil Traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine for pain relief. It has also been shown effective for soothing wounds and reducing inflammation.


*References:
  1. Alqareer A, Alyahya A, Andersson L. (May 24, 2012). "The effect of clove and benzocaine versus placebo as topical anesthetics". Journal of dentistry 34 (10): 747–50.
  2. Clove". MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health. 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2014..

Hesperidin Similar to diosmin, hesperidin is another phlebotonic compound found in abundance in citrus peels and other fruits. Studies have shown that hesperidin can significantly reduce the symptoms of varicose veins.

*References:
  1. Lyseng-Williamson KA, Perry CM. Drugs. 2003;63(1):71-100. Review.
  2. Peterson, J. J.; Beecher, G. R.; Bhagwat, S. A.; Dwyer, J. T.; Gebhardt, S. E.; Haytowitz, D. B.; Holden, J. M. (2006). "Flavanones in grapefruit, lemons, and limes: A compilation and review of the data from the analytical literature". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19 (Supplement): S74–S80.

Diosmin Similar to hesperidin, diosmin is another phlebotonic compound found in abundance in citrus peels and other fruits. Studies have shown that diosmin can significantly reduce the symptoms of varicose veins. Diosmin promotes healthy vein function and improves the blood flow and reduces pain and inflammation in varicose veins.

*References:
  1. Katherine A. Lyseng-Williamson and Caroline M. Perry. Micronised Purified Flavonoid Fraction. (2003). Adis Intl. Ltd.
  2. Alternative medicine Review. (2004). Diosmin: Monograph. Thorne Research Inc.

Psyllium Husk is a natural fiber derived from the Plantago ovata plant, specifically from the husks of the plant's seeds. Psyllium benefits the whole body, including varicose veins. Constipation can cause varicose veins, by ingesting Psyllium and thereby improving bowel movements, optimal vascular health is achieved.

*References:
  1. Alberts DS, Martínez ME, Roe DJ, et al. Lack of effect of a high-fiber cereal supplement on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. N Eng J Med. 2000;342(16):1156-1162.
  2. Anderson JW, Allgood LD, Lawrence A, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium intake adjunctive to diet therapy in men and women with hypercholesterolemia: meta-analysis of 8 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:472-479.

Vitamin K-1 (Phylloquinone) is an essential enzyme found naturally in a wide variety of plants. Research suggests that it has antioxidant properties and the ability to reduce blood clotting, especially important when treating varicose veins.

*References:
  1. Haroon Y, Shearer MJ, Rahim S, Gunn WG, McEnery G, Barkhan P (June 1982). "The content of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in human milk, cows' milk, and infant formula foods determined by high-performance liquid chromatography". J. Nutr. 112 (6): 1105–17.
  2. WHO Model List of Essential Medicines: 18th list". World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.

Melatonin is a natural human hormone that not only works with the body's own sleep-wake cycle (circadian rhythm) but also protects the skin by acting as a powerful healing antioxidant, helping to restore, firm, and smooth it. Studies have shown that melatonin rejuvenates your skin at the cellular level by stimulating the growth of fibroblasts, which are the cells that produce collagen and elastin. Your skin's whole structural support depends on collagen and elastin. Other studies have also shown melatonin to be a stronger free radical scavenger than even vitamins C and E. Topical melatonin is ideal for skin renewal and repair, damaged by varicose veins since it can penetrate the tough outer layers of your skin (the stratum corneum). Melatonin is also an anti-aging hormone that is effective for reducing and helping prevent sun damage and wrinkles.

*References:
  1. Ardura J, Gutierrez R, Andres J, Agapito T (2003). "Emergence and evolution of the circadian rhythm of melatonin in children". Horm. Res. 59 (2): 66–72.
  2. Fischer T W, Greif C, Fluhr J W, Wigger-Alberti W, Elsner P. “Percutaneous penetration of topically applied melatonin in a cream and an alcoholic solution." Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2004: 17: 190–194.
  3. Fischer T W, Scholz G, Knoll B, Hipler U C, Elsner P. “Melatonin suppresses reactive oxygen species in UV-irradiated leukocytes more than vitamin C and trolox." Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 2002: 15: 367–373.
  4. Fischer TW, Slominski A, Zmijewski MA, Reiter RJ, Paus R. “Melatonin as a major skin protectant: from free radical scavenging to DNA damage repair." Exp Dermatol. 2008 Sep;17(9):713-30.
  5. Sack RL, Lewy AJ, Erb DL, Vollmer WM, Singer CM (1986). "Human melatonin production decreases with age". J. Pineal Res. 3 (4): 379–88.